Dexamethasone is an anti-inflammatory treatment that can be used in horses and cattle. As supportive therapy, it may be used in the management of various rheumatic, allergic, dermatologic, and other diseases known to be responsive to anti-inflammatory corticosteroids. Dexamethasone Injectable Solution may be used intravenously as supportive therapy when an immediate hormonal response is required.
Dexamethasone Injectable Solution is a synthetic analogue of prednisolone, having similar but more potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic action and diversified hormonal and metabolic effects. Modification of the basic corticoid structure as achieved in Dexamethasone Injectable Solution offers enhanced anti-inflammatory effect compared to older corticosteroids. The dosage of Dexamethasone Injectable Solution required is markedly lower than that of prednisone and prednisolone.
Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection is indicated as a rapid adrenal glucocorticoid and/or anti-inflammatory agent in horses.
For Intravenous Use Only.
Horses: The usual intravenous dosage is 2.5 to 5 mg (based on 3 mg per mL of dexamethasone content).
If permanent corticosteroid effect is required, oral therapy with dexamethasone may be substituted. When therapy is to be withdrawn after prolonged corticosteroid administration, the daily dose should be reduced gradually over a number of days, in stepwise fashion.
Animals receiving Dexamethasone Injectable Solution should be under close observation. Because of the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids, signs of infection may be masked and it may be necessary to stop treatment until a further diagnosis is made. Overdosage of some glucocorticoids may result in sodium retention, fluid retention, potassium loss, and weight gain. Except for emergency therapy, do not use in animals with chronic nephritis and hypercorticalism (Cushing's syndrome). Existence of congestive heart failure, diabetes, and osteoporosis are relative contraindications. Do not use in viral infections during the viremic stage.
Do not use in viral infections. Except when used for emergency therapy, dexamethasone sodium phosphate is contraindicated in animals with tuberculosis and chronic nephritis. Existence of congestive heart failure, osteoporosis and diabetes are relative contraindications.
In the presence of infection appropriate antibacterial agents should also be administered and should be continued for at least 3 days after discontinuance of the hormone and disappearance of all signs of infection.
Clinical and experimental data have demonstrated that corticosteroids administered orally or by injection to animals may induce the first stage of parturition if used during the last trimester of pregnancy and may precipitate premature parturition followed by dystocia, fetal death, retained placenta and metritis. Additionally, corticosteroids administered to dogs, rabbits, and rodents during pregnancy have produced cleft palate. Other congenital anomalies including deformed forelegs, phocomelia, and anasarca have been reported in offspring of dogs which received corticosteroids during pregnancy.
Because of the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids, signs of infection may be hidden and it may be necessary to stop treatment until diagnosis is made. Overdosage of some glucocorticoids may result in sodium retention, fluid retention, potassium loss and weight gains.
In infections characterized by overwhelming toxicity, dexamethasone sodium phosphate therapy, in conjunction with indicated antibacterial therapy, is effective in reducing mortality. It is essential that the causative organism be known and an effective antibacterial agent be administered concurrently. The injudicious use of adrenal hormones in animals with infections can be hazardous.
Use of corticosteroids, depending on dose, duration and specific steroid, may result in inhibition of endogenous steroid production following drug withdrawal. In patients presently receiving or recently withdrawn from systemic corticosteroid treatments, therapy with a rapidly acting corticosteroid should be considered in unusually stressful situations.
The therapeutic use of dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection is unlikely to cause undesired accentuation of metabolic effects. However, if continued corticosteroid therapy is anticipated, a high protein intake should be provided to keep the animal in positive nitrogen balance. A retardant effect on wound healing should be considered when it is used in conjunction with surgery. Euphoria or an improvement of attitude, and increased appetite are the usual manifestations.
Side effects such as glycosuria, hyperglycemia, diarrhea, polydipsia and polyuria have been observed in some species.
Side effects such as SAP and SGPT enzyme elevations, eosinopenia, and vomiting have occurred following use of synthetic corticosteroids in dogs.
Cushing's Syndrome in dogs has been reported in association with prolonged or repeated steroid therapy.
Corticosteroids reportedly cause laminitis in horses.
Store between 15°C and 30°C (59°F-86°F). Do not freeze.