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Salix (Furosemide) for Dogs and Cats

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Description

Salix (Furosemide) is an effective diuretic possessing a wide therapeutic range. Pharmacologically it promotes the rapid removal of abnormally retained extracellular fluids. The rationale for the efficacious use of diuretic therapy is determined by the clinical pathology producing the edema. Furosemide is indicated for the treatment of edema, (pulmonary congestion, ascites) associated with cardiac insufficiency and acute noninflammatory tissue edema in dogs, cats and horses. Furosemide is also indicated for the treatment of physiological parturient edema of the mammary gland and associated structures in cattle.

The continued use of heart stimulants, such as digitalis or its glycosides is indicated in cases of edema involving cardiac insufficiency.

Furosemide is a chemically distinct diuretic and saluretic pharmacodynamically characterized by a high degree of efficacy, low-inherent toxicity and a high therapeutic index. It has a rapid onset of action and of comparatively short duration. The intravenous route produces the most rapid diuretic response.

Furosemide acts in the functional area of the nephron, i.e., proximal and distal tubules and the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

Furosemide may be administered orally or parenterally. It is readily absorbed from the intestinal tract and well tolerated.

Key Benefits

  • Treats excessive fluid accumulation and swelling caused by heart failure and other health problems
  • Easy to administer
  • Sold as 10 mg/ml 60 ml bottle oral solution or by the tablet for dogs and cats and as a 50 mg/ml injectable solution for horses, cats, and dogs

How It Works

Furosemide is a potent diuretic which works by blocking the absorption of salt and fluid in the kidney tubules causing an increase in urine output.

Indications

For the treatment of edema associated with cardiac insufficiency and acute non-inflammatory tissue edema in dogs, cats and horses.

Directions

View Salix Drug Facts Sheet.

The usual dosage of Salix is 1 to 2 mg/lb. body weight (approximately 2.5 to 5 mg/kg). The lower dosage is suggested for cats. Administer once or twice daily at 6 to 8 hour intervals either orally, intravenously, or intramuscularly. A prompt diuresis usually ensues from the initial treatment. Diuresismay be initiated by the parenteral administration of Salix injection and then maintained by oral administration.

The dosage should be adjusted to the individual's response. In severe edematous or refractory cases,the dose may be doubled or increased by increments of 1 mg per pound body weight. The established effective dose should be administered once or twice daily. The daily schedule of administration can betimed to control the period of micturition for the convenience of the client or veterinarian.

Mobilization of the edema may be most efficiently and safely accomplished by utilizing an intermittentdaily dosage schedule, i.e. every other day or 2 to 4 consecutive days weekly.

Diuretic therapy should be discontinued after reduction of the edema, or maintained after determining a carefully programmed dosage schedule to prevent recurrence of edema. For long-term treatment, thedose can generally be lowered after the edema has once been reduced. Re-examination and consultations with client will enhance the establishment of a satisfactorily programmed dosage schedule. Clinical examination and serum BUN, CO2 and electrolyte determinations should be performed during the early period of therapy and periodically thereafter, especially in refractory cases. Abnormalities should be corrected or the drug temporarily withdrawn.

ORAL

Dog & Cat - One-half to one 50 mg scored tablet per 25 pounds body weight.

One 12.5 mg tablet per 5 to 10 pounds body weight.

Administer once or twice daily, permitting a 6 to 8 hour interval between treatments. In refractory or severe edematous cases, the dosage may be doubled or increased by increments of 1 mg per pound body weight as recommended in preceding paragraphs, "Dosage and Administration".

PARENTERAL:

Dog & Cat - Administer intramuscularly or intravenously 1/4 to 1/2 mL per 10 pounds body weight.

Administer once or twice daily, permitting a 6 to 8 hour interval between treatments. In refractory or severe edematous cases, the dosage may be doubled or increased by increments of 1 mg per pound body weight as recommended in preceding paragraphs, "Dosage and Administration".

Horse - The individual dose is 250 to 500 mg (5 to 10 mL) administered intramuscularly or intravenously once or twice daily at 6 to 8 hour intervals until desired results are achieved. The veterinarian should evaluate the degree of edema present and adjust dosage schedule accordingly. Do not use in horses intended for human consumption.

Cattle - The individual dose administered intramuscularly or intravenously is 500 mg (10 mL) once daily or 250 mg (5 mL) twice daily at 12 hour intervals. Treatment not to exceed 48 hours postparturition.

Milk taken from animals during treatment and for 48 hours (four milkings) after the last treatment must not be used for food. Cattle must not be slaughtered for food within 48 hours following last treatment.

Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.

Caution:

Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. See package labeling for storage conditions.

Contraindications - Precautions

Salix is a highly effective diuretic-saluretic which if given in excessive amounts may result indehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Therefore, the dosage and schedule may have to be adjusted tothe patient's needs. The animal should be observed for early signs of electrolyte imbalance, and corrective measures administered. Early signs of electrolyte imbalance are: increased thirst, lethargy,drowsiness or restlessness, fatigue, oliguria, gastro-intestinal disturbances and tachycardia.

Special attention should be given to potassium levels.

Salix may lower serum calcium levels and cause tetany in rare cases of animals having an existing hypocalcemic tendency.

Although diabetes mellitus is a rarely reported disease in animals, active or latent diabetes mellitus mayon rare occasions be exacerbated by Salix. While it has not been reported in animals the use of high doses of salicylates, as in rheumatic diseases, in conjunction with Salix may result in salicylate toxicity because of competition for renal excretory sites.

Transient loss of auditory capacity has been experimentally produced in cats following intravenous injection of excessive doses of Salix at a very rapid rate.

Electrolyte balance should be monitored prior to surgery in patients receiving Salix. Imbalances mustbe corrected by administration of suitable fluid therapy.

Salix is contraindicated in anuria. Therapy should be discontinued in cases of progressive renal disease if increasing azotemia and oliguria occur during the treatment. Sudden alterations of fluid and electrolyte imbalance in an animal with cirrhosis may precipitate hepatic coma, therefore observation during period of therapy is necessary. In hepatic coma and in states of electrolyte depletion, therapy should not be instituted until the basic condition is improved or corrected. Potassium supplementation may be necessary in cases routinely treated with potassium-depleting steroids.

Warnings:

Salix is a highly effective diuretic and if given in excessive amounts as with any diuretic may lead to excessive diuresis which could result in electrolyte imbalance, dehydration and reduction of plasmavolume enhancing the risk of circulatory collapse, thrombosis, and embolism. Therefore, the animal should be observed for early signs of fluid depletion with electrolyte imbalance, and corrective measures administered. Excessive loss of potassium in patients receiving digitalis or its glycosides may precipitate digitalis toxicity. Caution should be exercised in animals administered potassium-depleting steroids.

It is important to correct potassium deficiency with dietary supplementation. Caution should be exercised in prescribing enteric-coated potassium tablets.

There have been several reports in human literature, published and unpublished, concerning nonspecific small-bowel lesions consisting of stenosis, with or without ulceration, associated with the administration of enteric-coated thiazides with potassium salts.

These lesions may occur with enteric-coated potassium tablets alone or when they are used with nonenteric-coated thiazides, or certain other oral diuretics. These small-bowel lesions may have caused obstruction, hemorrhage, and perforation. Surgery was frequently required, and deaths have occured. Available information tends to implicate enteric-coated potassium salts, although lesions of this type also occur spontaneously. Therefore, coated potassium-containing formulations should be administered only when indicated and should be discontinued immediately if abdominal pain, distention, nausea,vomiting, or gastro-intestinal bleeding occurs.

Human patients with known sulfonamide sensitivity may show allergic reactions to Salix; however, these reactions have not been reported in animals.

Sulfonamide diuretics have been reported to decrease arterial responsiveness to pressor amines and to enhance the effect of tubocurarine. Caution should be exercised in administering curare or its derivatives to patients undergoing therapy with Salix and it is advisable to discontinue Salix for oneday prior to any elective surgery.

FAQ

Do not give this medication if your pet or horse is not urinating. Tell your veterinarian if your pet or horse has kidney or liver disease, diabetes, or an allergy to sulfa drugs. Furosemide can make your pet's or horse's skin more sensitive to sunlight and sunburn may occur. Periodic blood tests, as well as kidney or liver function tests, may be necessary. Furosemide will make your pet or horse urinate more often. Your pet or horse should have drinking water readily available to prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Furosemide is a loop diuretic (water pill) used to treat fluid retention (edema) in dogs, cats, and horses with congestive heart failure, liver disease, or certain kidney disease. Furosemide is also used to treat high blood pressure. Furosemide is available by prescription as Furosemide Oral Solution containing 10 mg/ml, and in 12.5 mg (round yellow), 20 mg (round white), 40 mg (round white), 50 mg (round yellow), and 80 mg (round white) tablets for cats and dogs. It is also available by prescription as a 50 mg/ml injectable solution for cats, dogs, and horses. The usual dose of furosemide in dogs and cats is 1-2 mg/pound once or twice a day (at 6 to 8 hour intervals). Cats will usually get the lower dose. The usual dose for horses is 5-10 ml once or twice daily (at 6 to 8 hour intervals). Higher doses can be given depending on the severity of symptoms. Discard the opened bottle of Oral Solution after 90 days. Furosemide may also be used for purposes other than those listed here. The injectable solution does not include a syringe.
Do not give this medication if your pet or horse is not urinating. Tell your veterinarian if your pet or horse has kidney or liver disease, diabetes, or an allergy to sulfa drugs. Tell your veterinarian if your pet or horse is pregnant or lactating.
Give this medication exactly as directed by your veterinarian. Do not give larger amounts, or give it for longer than recommended by your veterinarian. Your veterinarian may occasionally change the dose to make sure your pet or horse gets the best results from this medication. Furosemide will make your pet or horse urinate more often, so your pet or horse should have drinking water readily available to prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Periodic blood tests as well as kidney or liver function tests may be necessary. Store this medication at room temperature away from heat, light, and moisture. The injectable solution can be administered by intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injection.
If any of the following serious side effects occur, stop giving furosemide and seek emergency veterinary medical attention; an allergic reaction (hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat). Stop giving furosemide and call your veterinarian at once if any of these serious side effects occur; dry mouth, thirst, nausea and vomiting, weakness, drowsiness, restlessness, irregular heartbeat, muscle pain or weakness, urinating less than usual or not at all, bleeding, unusual weakness, hair loss, "bulls-eye" lesions, vesicles around mouth, ears, and groin; hearing loss, nausea, stomach pain, fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, or jaundice. Continue giving furosemide and talk with your veterinarian if any of these less serious side effects should occur: diarrhea, constipation, or stomach pain, headache, dizziness, or blurred vision. Side effects other than those listed in this guide may also occur. Talk to your veterinarian about any side effect that seems unusual or especially bothersome to your pet or horse.
Furosemide is sometimes used only once, so that there may not be a dosing schedule. If you are giving furosemide regularly, give the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and wait until the next regularly scheduled dose. Do not give a double dose of the medication.
Seek emergency veterinary medical attention if you believe you have given your pet or horse too much medication. Symptoms of furosemide overdose may include loss of appetite, weakness, dizziness, confusion, fainting.
Avoid allowing your pet or horse to become dehydrated. Keep plenty of water available for your pet or horse to drink. Furosemide can make your pet's or horse's skin more sensitive to sunlight and sunburn may occur.
If you give your pet or horse sucralfate (Carafate), give it at least 2 hours before or after giving furosemide. Tell your veterinarian if your pet or horse is being given digoxin (Lanoxin), steroids (such as prednisone), other blood pressure medications, Amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, salicylates such as aspirin (Vetrin), or indomethacin. Drugs other than those listed may also interact with furosemide. Tell your veterinarian about all the prescription and over the counter medications you are giving your pet or horse. This includes vitamins, minerals, and herbal products.

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