What is compounding?
Drug compounding is often regarded as the process of combining or mixing drugs to create a medication tailored to the needs of an individual patient.
The generic form of Vetmedin is Pimobendan.
Vetmedin is in limited supply. Orders placed will be shipped as product continues to come off backorder.
FlunazineŽ Injectable flunixin meglamine to be used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic or antipyretic. For use in horses and cattle, including dairy cattle.
FlunazineŽ is recommendd for the alleviation of inflammation and associated pain in musculoskeletal diorders in the horse.
Flunazine is also recommended for the alleviation of visceral pain associated with colic in the horse
FlunazineŽ is indicated for the control of pyrexia associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease. FlunazineŽ is also indicated for the control of pyrezia and inflammation associatd with endotoxemia. In clinical studies, flunixin meglumine injectable as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy with oxytetracycline has been demonstrated to control pyrexia associated bovine respiratory disease.
ACTION: Flunixin meglumine is a potent, non-narcotic, non-steroidal, analgesic agent with anti-inflammatory activity. Antipyretic activity has been demonstrated in cattle and in laboratory animals. It is significantly more potent than pentazocine, meperidine and codeine as an analgesic in the rat yeast paw test.
HORSE: Flunixin is four times as potent on a mg per mg basis as phenylbutazone as measured by the reduction in lameness and swelling in the horse. Plasma half-time in horse serum is 1.6 hour following a single dose of 1.1 mg/kg
Measurable amounts are detectable in horse plasma at 8 hours post injection.
CATTLE: Flunixin meglumine is a weak acid (pKa=5.82) which exhibits a high degree of plasma protein binding (app. 99%). Howecer, free (unbound) drug appears to readily partition into body tissues (Vss predictions range from 297 to 782 mL/kg). Total body water is approcimately 570 mL/kg. In cattle, elimination occurs primarily through biliaryh excretion. This may, at least in part, explain the presence of multiple peaks in the blood concentration/time profile following IV administration.
In healthy cattle, total body clearance has been reported to range from 90 to 150 mL/kg/hr. These studies also report a large discrepancy between the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) and the colume of distribution associated with the terminal elimination phase (Bß). This discrepancy appears to be attributable to extended drug elimination from a deep compartment. The terminal half-life has been shown to vary from 3.14 to 8.12 hours. In clinical studies, the treatment with flunixin meglumine injectable as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy with oxytetracycline has been demonstrated to control pyrexia associated with bovine respiratory diseases.
Model and field studies have shown that flunixin can have short-term effect in the control of some inflammatory factors associated with endotoxemia and irritation (carregeenan).
Flunixin persists in inflammatory tissues and is associated with anti-inflammatory properties which extend well beyond the period associated with detectable plasma drug concentrations. These observations account for the counterclockwise hysteresis associatd with flunixin's pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. Therefor, prediction of drug concentrations based on the estimated plasma terminal half-life will likely underestimate both the duration of drug action and the concentration of drug remaining at the site of activity.
DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION:
HORSES: The recommended dose for musculoskeletal disorders is 1.1 mg per kg (1 mL/45 kg) of body weight once daily. Treatment may be given by intravenous or intramuscular injection and repeated for up to 5 days. Intravenous studies show onset of activity is within 2 hours. Peak response occurs between 12 and 16 hours and duration of activity is 24 to 36 hours following intravenous and intramuscular administration.
The recommended dose for the alleviation of pain associated with equine colic is 1.1 mg per kg of body weight. Intravenous administration is recommended for prompt relief. Intravenous administration is recommended for prompt relief. Should colic symptoms recur, treatment may be repeated as necessary. Clinical studies show that pain symptoms were alleviated in 37% of treated horses within 15 minutes, and 74% within 30 minutes. The cause of colic should be determined and treated with concomitant therapy.
CATTLE: The recommended dose for cattle is 2.2 mg/kg (2 mL/45 kg) given by slow intravenous administration once a day for up to 3 days. The total daily dose should not exceed 2.2 mg/kg of body weight. Avoid rapid intravenous administration of the drug. Twenty-four (24) hours after administration, check if animal is febrile. Readminister only if the fever is 104°(40°) or higher.
HORSES: Do not administer intra-arterially. Inadvertent intra-arterial injection may caused adverse reactions. Signs can be ataxia, incoordination, hyperventilation, hysteria, and muscle weakness. Signs are transient and disappear without antidotal medication iwthin a few minutes. Do not use in horses showing hypersensitivity to flunixin meglumine.
CATTLE: Do not administer intra-arterially. Inadvertent intra-arterial injection may cause adverse reactions. Do not use in cattle showing hypersensitivity to flunixin meglumine. The drug is conta-indicated in animals with hepatic diseases. It is also contra-indicated in dehydrated animals, and in cattle with renal impairment, platelet disorder or gastric ulceration.
CAUTION: The use of NSAIDS may be associated with gastro-intestinal and renal toxicity. Patients at greates risk for renal toxicity are those that are dehydrated, on concomitant diuretic therapy or those with renal, cardiovascular, and/or hepatic dysfunction, concomitant use of this drug with other anti-inflammatory drugs, such as other NSAIDS and corticosteroids should be avoided.
With the exception of the antibiotic oxytetracycline in cattle, studies to determine the activity of flunixin meglumine when administered concomitantly with other drugs have not been conducted. Drug compatibility should be monitored closely in patients requiring adjunctive therapy. Discontinue use if hematuria or fecal blood are observed. Avoid rapid intravenous administration of the drug.
HORSES: The effect of flunixin meglumine on reproduction in horses has not been determined. Studies on reproduction in rats and rabbts have shown no teratogenicity.
CATTLE: Do not use in bulls intended for breedign as reproductive effects of flunazine* in this class of cattle have not been investigatd. NSAIDs are known to have potential effects on both parturition and the estrous cycle. There may be a delay in the onset of estrus if flunixin is administered during the prostaglandin phase of the estrous cycle. The effects of flunixin on imminent partrution have not been evaluated in a controlled study. NSAIDs are known to have the potential to delay parturition through a tocolytic effect. DO not exceed the recommended dose.
SIDE EFFECTS: During clinical studies no significant side effects were reported when the drug was injected slowly. In cattle, a temporary head thrashing can occur if the drug is injected too rapidly.